In , at the start of WW2, aviation was in a state of flux. The biplane single seat fighter had reached the ultimate development point. The Gloster Gladiator is a prime example. With an enclosed cockpit and 4 machine guns, it did serve briefly, at the start of the conflict. Known affectionately to it's Fleet Air Arm's pilots as the "Stringbag", it was able to deliver a torpedo with deadly accuracy.
I might Wwll rc models order two more. RC Fokker D7. ProFly OV Bis music mm A 4-stroke RC engine, of from. Only 1 left in stock - order soon. They have good detail and entertain him for long periods. Maybe the most famous scale model of WW 2.
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- Revell-Monogram is ranked 1 out of 39 world war ii airplane model kits manufacturers, followed by Tamiya , and Trumpeter.
- Although he was a hard-driving, aggressive panzer commander early in the war, Model became best known as a practitioner of defensive warfare.
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A plane which since July the Nakajima Aircraft Mfg. After the fall of Smolensk , Hitler ordered a change of direction, and Guderian's panzer group turned south into Ukraine. Thus, on 31 January , he was urgently sent to command Army Group North ,  which, two weeks earlier, had seen its stranglehold on Leningrad broken by the Volkhov , Leningrad and 2nd Baltic Fronts. Model threw his armour into the fray, but with little effect, beyond incurring more casualties. Hitler, Adolf . Starved of fuel and ammunition, the attack had broken down by 25 December, and was abandoned on 8 January.
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It was in April of that the plane was designated "Shi Interceptor J2M1 " and official requirements were set out by the Navy. The requirements gave priority to climbing power, maximum speed and high altitude performance.
Aircraft engines of those days that could meet all these requirements were only the air-cooled engine "Kasei" type 11 t. Monogram mon A plane which since July the Nakajima Aircraft Mfg.
Company had designed and manufactured for trial under the name of KI was officially adopted in April by the Army as the Fighter Type 4 "Hayate" and the mass production was started. The number of the Hayate produced by the end of World War II totaled about 3, which ranks next to that of the Zero and the Hayabusa but is the largest in the Japanese aircraft history in view of the number produced in about a year.
The performance of the Hayate was equal to, or higher than that of the Allies' fighters of those days. This was the first fighter worthy of the name having excellent speed climbing ability , firepower and maneuverabili. In , the Naval Aviation Headquarters conceived a plan of trial manufacturing a floatplane fighter, a new type beyond all precedents in the world.
On the assumption of landing and invading the Southern regions, the Japanese Navy intended in those days to station float planes in waterways and bays near the landing places until the completion of land air bases for the purpose of defending those under construction and occupied territories.
Since the floatplanes might have to fight with enemy fighters in the air, they were required to be pure fighters comparing favourably with enemy fighters in performance. The Navy firmly believed that sufficiently armed floatplanes would be able to fight on. Sub-Category 9. Filters 5. Brand Keyword Search. Show Matches. Scale 11 Sector 3. Code named Operation Mars , Soviet forces struck simultaneously at the Ninth Army from four directions.
Model's defensive abilities were once again put to the test, and his forces were once again were able to contain and then cut off and destroy Soviet spearheads, even though the German losses were again extensive.
Large-scale anti- partisan sweeps were carried out in the weeks before the operation the army's sector was a hotbed for partisan activity , in which an estimated 3, Russians were killed, the great majority of whom were unarmed, as shown by the inventory of the seized weapons: rifles, 41 pistols, 61 machine guns, 17 mortars, 9 antitank rifles and 16 small artillery pieces.
The withdrawal itself was precisely planned and took two weeks, with minimal casualties or disruption in a move of an Army group numbering approximately , men, tanks and artillery pieces. In its wake, Model personally ordered the deportation of all male civilians, wells poisoned, and at least two dozen villages razed in a scorched earth policy to hinder the Red Army's follow up in the area. The official Soviet report published on 7 April showed the effects of the German policy.
In Viazma, out of 5, buildings, only 51 small houses were still standing; at Gzhatsk, out of 1,; in Rzhev, out of 5, The rural areas suffered equally; in the Sychevka area, for example, villages out of had been burned down.
British war correspondent Alexander Werth visited the area soon after the liberation and saw for himself the results of Model's orders. The report listed Model at the top of the list of the war criminals responsible for the "deliberate extermination policy" and noted that most of the killings of civilians were carried out by regular Wehrmacht units, not just the Gestapo or the SD. On 5 July , Model led the northern assault on Kursk during Operation Citadel , a plan which had caused great controversy within the German high command.
Rather than conclude that the offensive be called off, however, he said it should be postponed until he could receive further reinforcements, in particular the new Panther tanks and Ferdinand tank destroyers. Model's true opinion on the value of the offensive remains unclear. Manstein took his recommendation at face value, while Guderian said that he was categorically against attacking.
Model's assault was a failure, as Ninth Army quickly became enmeshed in the elaborate Soviet fortifications. The Red Army's strength in the salient was, in fact, growing much faster than that of the attacking force. Nor did his tactical plan of attack meet with great success.
Having less armour and more artillery than Manstein in the south, and fearing that the deep Soviet defences would stall an armour-heavy attack the hallmark of the German Blitzkrieg , he decided to use his infantry to breach Rokossovsky's line before unleashing his armour. It did not work. Model threw his armour into the fray, but with little effect, beyond incurring more casualties. As mitigating factors, the Red Army had concentrated more of their strength facing Model in the north; and Rokossovsky had correctly anticipated where the attack would come, defending that sector heavily.
Model's use of infantry assaults also meant his losses in armour were lower than those of Manstein. Prior to Kursk, Model had anticipated the possibility of a Soviet attack into the Orel Salient, and had without OKH 's knowledge constructed extensive defensive works to meet such an attack.
Following the stalling of his advance, the Soviet counter-offensive, Operation Kutuzov , duly opened on 12 July. It involved not just Rokossovsky's Central Front, but also the Bryansk and Western Fronts , a greater concentration of forces than Model had assaulted in Operation Citadel.
For the battle, Kluge placed him in command of Second Panzer Army in addition to Ninth Army — again, a larger total force than he had commanded in Citadel. An idea of the scale of the fighting compared to Citadel can be gained from the combined casualty lists for Second Panzer and Ninth Armies: from 1 to 10 July, the Germans took 21, casualties, and from 11 to 31 July, 62, Despite these losses he had inflicted similarly heavy casualties on the three Red Army Fronts, shortened the line, and avoided annihilation.
Similar to Rzhev withdrawal, Model ordered his troops to carry out the same scorched earth policy in the Orel salient, destroying the infrastructure and harvest, and deporting , civilians in inhuman conditions. After the loss of Orel, Model withdrew to the Dnieper as the Red Army went on the offensive from Smolensk in the north to Rostov in the south.
He was relieved of command of the Ninth Army at the end of September, and took the opportunity to go on three months' leave in Dresden with his family. Thus, on 31 January , he was urgently sent to command Army Group North ,  which, two weeks earlier, had seen its stranglehold on Leningrad broken by the Volkhov , Leningrad and 2nd Baltic Fronts.
The situation was dire: the Eighteenth Army had been shattered into three parts  and on the same time, the front has virtually dissolved. Under this doctrine, ground would only temporarily be ceded, to gather reserves for an immediate counter-attack that would drive the Red Army back and relieve pressure on other areas of the front.
Historians have since debated their significance, some claiming that Shield and Sword was Hitler's invention,  while others say they were a calculated ploy by Model to disguise his true intent — to pull back to the Panther Line.
Regardless, the "temporary" loss of ground usually became permanent, as Model conducted a fighting withdrawal to the Panther Line. He delegated responsibility for the Narva front to Johannes Friessner commanding Army Detachment Narva, while he concentrated on extricating Eighteenth Army from its predicament. Without OKH's notice or approval, he constructed a series of interim defensive lines to cover its retreat, slowing down and inflicting heavy losses on the pursuing Soviet forces in the process.
By 1 March, the withdrawal was complete. These counter-attacks usually failed to recover ground, but they kept the Red Army off-balance and won Model time to pull his units back.
They also allowed him to say to Hitler that he was pursuing an aggressive approach, even as the front moved steadily to the west. On 1 March Model was promoted to field marshal Generalfeldmarschall. His rise from colonel to field marshal had taken just six years. He replaced Manstein, who had fallen out of favour with Hitler. Despite the catastrophic situation, Model believed he could still hold Minsk, but this would require Fourth Army to break out of its pocket, and reinforcements to counter-attack the Soviet advance.
The reinforcements, in turn, could only be obtained by pulling back, thus shortening the line and freeing up troops. The general consensus is that the German position was doomed, regardless of what Model could have done,   but Hitler refused to sanction either Fourth Army's escape or a general withdrawal, until it was too late.
Minsk was liberated by the Soviet 1st and 3rd Belorussian Fronts on 3 July,  but Model still hoped to re-establish the front to the west of the city, with the aid of divisions from Army Groups North and North Ukraine. However, German strength was unequal to the task, and he had been driven out of Vilnius and Baranovichi by 8 July. Model stopped the Red Army's advance just short of Warsaw by 3 August, setting up a continuous front from south of Shaulyay to the right boundary on the Vistula near Pulawy.
At various times in , Model commanded each of the three major army groups on the Eastern Front ,  and for a short period in the middle of the year was commanding both Army Groups Centre and North Ukraine simultaneously. Third Army was driving for the Seine , and an Army group was in danger of being annihilated in the Falaise pocket. Model's first order was that Falaise be defended, which did not impress his staff.
He was thus able to rescue a high proportion of the units involved, albeit at the cost of nearly all their armour and heavy materiel. After the fighting in Normandy, Model established his headquarters at Oosterbeek , near Arnhem in the Netherlands , where he set about the massive task of rebuilding Army Group B. On 17 August , Model was appointed to the temporary command of OB West, upon Kluge's recall to Berlin to answer charges that he had involvement with the failed July 20 plot.
Kluge would commit suicide en route. On 17 September, his lunch was interrupted when the British 1st Airborne Division dropped into the town launching Operation Market Garden , the Allied attempt to capture the bridges on the lower Rhine , Maas and Waal.
Model initially thought they were trying to capture him and his staff, but the soon-apparent scale of the assault quickly convinced him otherwise. Whilst still seriously understrength, it was composed of veterans and was a deadly threat to lightly equipped paratroopers.
Model believed that the situation represented not just a threat, but also an opportunity to counter-attack and possibly clear the Allies out of the Southern Netherlands. With the exception of this tactical error, Model is considered to have fought an outstanding battle and handed the Allies a sharp defeat. The bridge at Arnhem was held and the 1st Airborne Division destroyed, dashing the Allies' hopes for a foothold over the Rhine before the end of the year.
Arnhem restored much of Model's self-confidence, which had been shaken by the experience of Normandy. While he interfered less in the day-to-day movements of his units than at Arnhem, he still kept himself fully informed on the situation, slowing the Allies' progress, inflicting heavy casualties and taking full advantage of the fortifications of the Westwall , known to the Allies as the Siegfried Line.
First Army at least 33, killed and incapacitated, including both combat and non-combat losses: German casualties were at least 28, Aachen eventually fell on 22 October, again at high cost to the U. Ninth Army. The Ninth Army's push to the Roer River fared no better, and did not manage to cross the river or wrest control of its dams from the Germans. Following the Wehrmacht 's victory at Operation Market Garden , Hitler decided to launch a last-ditch offensive in the West aiming to catch the Anglosphere forces by surprise, with the objective of retaking Antwerp ,  striking the seam between the British and Americans that leads to political as well as military disharmony between the Allies, isolate the 21st Army Group , thereby allowing their encirclement and destruction before the American leadership particularly the political leadership could react and erasing the enemy ground threat to the Ruhr.
Model, along with all the other commanders involved, believed this aim was unachievable given the resources available to the Wehrmacht on the West Front at this late point in the war. Thus, he prepared Operation Herbstnebel , a less ambitious attack that did not aim to cross the Meuse , but would still, if successful, have inflicted a severe setback on the Western Allied Army groups now bearing down on the Franco-German border.
These armies, with over 2, panzers and 2, airplanes represented the last strategic reserve of the crumbling Third Reich. When a staff officer complained about shortages, Model snapped: "If you need anything, take it from the Americans". When Colonel Friedrich August von der Heydte , ordered to lead a parachute drop as part of the operation, said that the jump had no more than a 10 percent chance of success, he replied: "Well, then it is necessary to make the attempt, since the entire offensive has no more than a 10 percent chance of success.
It must be done, since this offensive is the last remaining chance to conclude the war favourably. The operation was launched on 16 December and enjoyed initial success, but it quickly suffered from a lack of air cover and the inexperience in some of its infantry component, and critically short fuel supply.
Sixth SS Panzer Army met heavy allied resistance, and while Fifth Panzer Army managed to make a deep thrust into Allied line, Model was unable to exploit the breakthrough there.
He had failed to capture a vital road junction at Bastogne , and this in combination with poor weather and difficult terrain, caused the German columns to back up into huge traffic jams on the roads behind the front.
Starved of fuel and ammunition, the attack had broken down by 25 December, and was abandoned on 8 January. The failure of Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein marked the end of Model's special relationship with Hitler, who on 21 January issued an order that all the divisions of Army Group B would thenceforth be personally responsible to him to limit Model's operational freedom of decision.
Any suggestion of its withdrawal back to the river Rhine to obtain a better fighting position - given the Third Reich's weakening strength against the Allied torrent of men and material - was forbidden, and it was ordered to conduct its actions from now on upon the strategic basis of not yielding an inch of ground and an abandonment of tactical manoeuvre. By mid-March Model and Army Group B had been forced back in fighting of attrition with the Americans across the Rhine river into Germany itself after the stunning failure to destroy the Ludendorff Bridge during the Battle of Remagen.
First and Ninth Armies. He further ordered that its physical economic infrastructure — the heart of Germany's industrial power — be destroyed by Army Group B to prevent it falling into Allied hands. Model ignored these instructions. Model's reply was that he still considered himself bound by his oath to Adolf Hitler and his sense of honour as a German field marshal, and in consequence a formal surrender was out of the question and he ordered Army Group B's dissolution.
The oldest and youngest soldiers were discharged from military service and the remaining men were granted leave by order, to surrender or attempt to break out at their discretion. Model's decision ended the war for his men, but he had little desire to witness the aftermath of defeat. He said to his staff before dissolving his command: "Has everything been done to justify our actions in the light of history?
What can there be left for a commander in defeat? In antiquity they took poison". The site of the event, between Duisburg and the village of Lintorf , is today part of the city of Ratingen.
Model was buried by his men where he died. Unlike Erwin Rommel , another field marshal who preferred to lead from the front, Walter Model was almost universally disliked by those who had to work with him. For example, when he was made commander of the XLI Panzer Corps in , the entire corps staff asked to be transferred. He made a habit of being abusive and foul-mouthed, micromanaging his subordinates, changing plans without consultation, and bypassing the chain of command when it suited him.
He was oblivious to the niceties of etiquette, often reprimanding or castigating his officers in public. When he departed Army Group North in March after being sent to Ukraine, the army group's chief of staff remarked, "the 'Swine' is gone". He was considered a thorough and competent leader but known to "demand too much, and that too quickly", accepting no excuses for failure from either his own men or those who outranked him.
His troops were said to have "suffered under his too-frequent absences and erratic, inconsistent demands", for he frequently lost sight of what was or was not practically possible. Yet his dislike of bureaucracy and his crude speech often made him well liked by many under his command. His command style had worked when he was leading a division or corps, but once promoted to command of an army, it opened him to criticism over whether the advantages gained were enough to offset the loss of efficiency that followed.
The statement that he was no strategist can find merit as it was observed that he showed little inclination to contemplate those stretches of the front he did not command and therefore disregarding the strategic field to conduct warfare. Model is regarded as being an excellent defensive commander of the Third Reich,  and having an "outstanding talent for improvisation".
He had a formidable memory and eye for detail, which allowed him to dominate his staff officers, especially those in charge of specialist areas such as artillery, transport and communications. Before the war he was put in charge of analyzing technical advances at home and abroad and his enthusiasm for innovation earned him the nickname Armee Modernissimus "the army modernization fanatic".
Model fought nearly all his battles in the northern and central parts of the Eastern Front; he was never tested on the steppes of southern Russia, where the open terrain would have made mobile warfare a more attractive proposition. Nevertheless, his defensive record indicated the value of his approach. At Rzhev, Orel, in Galicia and in Estonia he stymied opponents who expected to overwhelm him.
He had the reputation of a ruthless commander, willing to inflict and take casualties to stabilize his front. The objective was always to give necessary reinforcements to the centres of gravity when no reserves were available. From an operational viewpoint this allowed Model to achieve defensive successes, which would not have been possible otherwise. According to Newton, the sending of theatre or operational reserves into the line where the fighting was toughest was meant to preserve the units Model saw as organically tied to his own command.
Though he was told that the division was not to be broken up, Model nonetheless split it into battalions and companies, which he used to plug any gaps that appeared. According to Newton, Model reasoned that the elite units would be eventually withdrawn and reformed, an option which may not have been available to his regular army divisions. For example, on 7 October he forbade the splitting up of regiments into autonomous battalions to be used outside the division.
Allied to this were his boundless determination and vigour and stubborn refusal to countenance defeat. He held himself to the same high standard as he held those around him, saying: "He who leads troops has no right to think about himself". As commanding general of Ninth Army he was once recorded as personally leading a battalion attack against a Soviet position, pistol in hand.
Guderian thought him the best choice to command Army Group Centre during the crisis of Operation Bagration ;  the Ninth Army's War Diary recorded, after he arrived at army group headquarters in Minsk: "The news of Field Marshal Model's arrival is noted with satisfaction and confidence. Model was the master of the type of defense which can be called 'defense limited in time'; in which you defend as long as possible but then retreat to avoid breakthrough and destruction.
He was always at the critical points and took away battlegroups or even single battalions from less threatened sectors. With these units holes were plugged at other locations or short counterattacks were executed and so opportunities were created for bigger solutions. Thus, a closed front was guaranteed while the mixing and tearing apart of units was viewed as the smaller evil.
Before the war, Model had been content to leave politics to the politicians, preferring instead to concentrate on military affairs. Despite this, he became one of the Wehrmacht 's field marshals most closely identified with Hitler.
Postwar opinions on him have varied. As one of the few German generals of middle class upbringing, Model's background appealed to Hitler, who distrusted the old Prussian aristocratic order that still dominated the Wehrmacht's officer corps. His defensive tactics were a much better fit to Hitler's instincts never to give ground, than talk of "elastic defence"—even if Model stood fast out of sheer necessity, and not due to fanaticism.
His stubbornness, energy and ruthlessness were more qualities that Hitler found admirable, and Model's blunt and direct manner of speaking also made an impression.
In a much-noted incident, Model had to deal with an attempt by Adolf Hitler to interfere with his arrangements. Immediately, Model drove back from Rzhev to Vyazma in a raging blizzard and boarded a plane for East Prussia. Hitler, shocked at the defiance of his newest army commander, tried to find another solution favorable for both, but Model still was not satisfied.
I'd like to know what becomes of their theories at the moment of action". He frequently disputed, ignored or bypassed orders that he felt unsupportable: at Rzhev and Orel he had constructed defensive fortifications in defiance of a ban, and his use of Shield and Sword tactics while at Army Group North proved to be simply a cover for a staged withdrawal.
His relationships with his superiors were marked by dissembling, where what he wrote in his reports could bear little resemblance to what was actually happening. Many of Model's fellow officers considered him a Nazi.
Following the July 20 Plot , Model was the first senior commander to reaffirm his loyalty to Hitler, yet he also refused to give up General Hans Speidel , his chief of staff at Army Group B who was implicated in the plot, to the Gestapo.
Like them, he shielded Speidel for as long as possible, while ignoring such treasonous talk as might take place. While on the Eastern Front, Model showed no objection to the treatment of civilians by the SS in the areas under his command and oversaw several anti- partisan operations, mostly while commanding the 9th Army.
These operations, conducted by Wehrmacht troops as well as SS, were bloody, although not unusual by German Eastern Front standards. In conjunction with the ruthless scorched earth policies he followed during his retreats, they would lead to the Soviet Union's declaring him a war criminal.
Despite this, while commanding Army Group Centre, he refused to dispatch troops to put down the Warsaw uprising a task that was carried out by the SS , viewing it as a rear-area matter. He stated that the revolt arose from the mistreatment of the Polish population by the Nazis and the army should have nothing to do with it. Model's biographer, the military historian Steven Newton, argues that the best explanation for Model's behaviour is that he was not necessarily a Nazi but an authoritarian militarist who saw in Hitler the strong leader that Germany needed.
According to Newton, Model saw himself as the professional, apolitical soldier; he possessed a strong sense of German nationalism, with the accompanying tenets of racial prejudice against Slavs and Jews. This characterized many in the German officer corps, but in Model's case it was accompanied by a cynical willingness to placate the Nazi regime to expedite his own goals.
The historian Gerhard Weinberg states that Model had benefited from the hastening of the evolution that occurred in the relationship of Hitler to the military following the defeat at Stalingrad. Hitler had always resented his dependence on a professional higher officer corps whom he hoped to replace at the earliest opportunity with men more ideologically attuned to National Socialism.
After Stalingrad, Hitler relieved his generals with greater frequency, while pushing up into the higher ranks those "whose dedication to extreme National Social views made them more congenial to his way of thinking". The historian Ben H. Shepherd opines that Model was "not the most fanatical Nazi". The reasons Hitler favoured him lay with Model's middle-class background and his ruthlessly utilitarian warfare style. According to Forczyk, Model only cared about politics if this would give him more troops.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Walter Model. See battles. Main article: Operation Barbarossa.
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