Tran cong hoan-Lịch sử Việt Nam - History of Vietnam - Người Kể Sử

International Edition. Live Quote: On. Quotes News Reports. Nguyen Cong Hoan is no longer a principal shareholder of Tech - Vina Joint Stock Company with information as follows: - Name of stock held: CET shares - Number of shares held by principal shareholder before transaction: , shares 9. Newsletter Signup.

Tran cong hoan

Tran cong hoan

Tran cong hoan

Tran cong hoan

Top Stories. Diplomatic History. North Vietnam launched a conventional invasion of South Vietnam in late March which was only finally repulsed by October with massive US air Tran cong hoan. By mid-June, we were in Philadelphia. Later on the war the initial guerrilla war turned into a more conventional fight as the balance of power became equalized. Live Quote: On. Vietnam: A history.

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Vietnam[ese] Republic , was a country that existed from to , the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War.

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International Edition. Live Quote: On. Quotes News Reports. Nguyen Cong Hoan is no longer a principal shareholder of Tech - Vina Joint Stock Company with information as follows: - Name of stock held: CET shares - Number of shares held by principal shareholder before transaction: , shares 9.

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Vietnam[ese] Republic , was a country that existed from to , the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War. It received international recognition in as the " State of Vietnam " a self-governing entity in the French Empire , which was a constitutional monarchy — This became the "Republic of Vietnam" in South Vietnam was bordered by North Vietnam to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines , Malaysia , Brunei , and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast.

It had membership in several special committees of the United Nations , but its application for full membership was rejected in because of a Soviet veto neither South nor North Vietnam were members of the UN during the Vietnam War, but the united Vietnam became a member state in Larger escalation of the insurgency occurred in with American intervention and the introduction of regular forces of Marines , followed by Army units to supplement the cadre of military advisors guiding the Southern armed forces.

A regular bombing campaign over North Vietnam was conducted by offshore US Navy airplanes, warships, and aircraft carriers joined by Air Force squadrons through and Fighting peaked up to that point during the Tet Offensive of February , when there were over a million South Vietnamese soldiers and , US soldiers in South Vietnam.

Later on the war the initial guerrilla war turned into a more conventional fight as the balance of power became equalized. An even larger, armored invasion from the North commenced during the Easter Offensive following US ground-forces withdrawal, and had nearly overran some major northern cities until beaten back.

Despite a truce agreement under the Paris Peace Accords , concluded in January , after a torturous five years of on and off negotiations, fighting continued almost immediately afterwards.

Communist forces overran Saigon on 30 April , marking the end of the Republic of Vietnam. The North was known as the "Democratic Republic of Vietnam".

The name is also sometimes rendered as "Viet Nam" in English. Cochinchina had been annexed by France in and even elected a deputy to the French National Assembly. It was more "evolved" , and French interests were stronger than in other parts of Indochina, notably in the form of French-owned rubber plantations. In June , France declared Cochinchina a republic, separate from the northern and central parts. A Chinese Kuomintang army arrived to occupy Vietnam's north of the 16th parallel north , while a British led force occupied the south in September.

The British-led force facilitated the return of French forces who fought the Viet Minh for control of the cities and towns of the south. The State of Vietnam was created through co-operation between anti-communist Vietnamese and the French government on 14 June The colonial struggle in Vietnam became part of the global Cold War.

At the time of the conference, it was expected that the South would continue to be a French dependency. When Vietnam was divided, , to 1 million North Vietnamese, mainly but not exclusively Roman Catholics, sailed south as part of Operation Passage to Freedom due to a fear of religious persecution in the North.

His American advisors had recommended a more modest winning margin of "60 to 70 percent". The Geneva Accords promised elections in to determine a national government for a united Vietnam.

In , independent observers from India, Poland, and Canada representing the International Control Commission ICC stated that fair, unbiased elections were not possible, reporting that neither South nor North Vietnam had honored the armistice agreement: [13] "The elections were not held.

South Vietnam, which had not signed the Geneva Accords, did not believe the Communists in North Vietnam would allow a fair election. In January , the ICC agreed with this perception, reporting that neither South nor North Vietnam had honored the armistice agreement. With the French gone, a return to the traditional power struggle between north and south had begun again.

The North Vietnamese Communist Party approved a "people's war" on the South at a session in January and this decision was confirmed by the Politburo in March. About of the "regroupees" of were sent south on the trail during its first year of operation. Throughout this period, the level of US aid and political support increased.

In spite of this, a US intelligence estimate reported that "one-half of the entire rural region south and southwest of Saigon, as well as some areas to the north, are under considerable Communist control. Some of these areas are in effect denied to all government authority not immediately backed by substantial armed force. Meanwhile, the Gulf of Tonkin incident of 2 August led to a dramatic increase in direct American participation in the war, with nearly , troops deployed by the end of the year.

They imposed censorship and suspended civil liberties, and intensified anticommunist efforts. The Tet Offensive failed to spark a national uprising and was militarily disastrous. By bringing the war to South Vietnam's cities, however, and by demonstrating the continued strength of communist forces, it marked a turning point in US support for the government in South Vietnam.

The new administration of Richard Nixon introduced a policy of Vietnamization to reduce US combat involvement and began negotiations with the North Vietnamese to end the war. North Vietnam launched a conventional invasion of South Vietnam in late March which was only finally repulsed by October with massive US air support. A plan to improve logistics was prepared so that the PAVN would be able to launch a massive invasion of the South, projected for The oil price shock of October caused significant damage to the South Vietnamese economy.

After two clashes that left 55 South Vietnamese soldiers dead, President Thieu announced on 4 January that the war had restarted and that the Paris Peace Accord was no longer in effect. There were over 25, South Vietnamese casualties during the ceasefire period. By this time, the Ho Chi Minh trail, once an arduous mountain trek, had been upgraded into a drivable highway with gasoline stations. President Thieu later abandoned Phuoc Long in early January The South Vietnamese unsuccessfully attempted a defence and counterattack but had few reserve forces, as well as a shortage of spare parts and ammunition.

As the military situation deteriorated, ARVN troops started deserting. Minh was seen as a more conciliatory figure toward the North, and it was hoped he might be able to negotiate a more favourable settlement to end the war. The North, however, was not interested in negotiations, and its forces captured Saigon.

During the hours leading up to the surrender, the United States undertook a massive evacuation of US government personnel as well as high-ranking members of the ARVN and other South Vietnamese who were seen as potential targets for persecution by the Communists. Many of the evacuees were taken directly by helicopter to multiple aircraft carriers waiting off the coast. An iconic image of the evacuation is the widely seen footage of empty Huey helicopters being jettisoned over the side of the carriers, to provide more room on the ship's deck for more evacuees to land.

South Vietnam went through many political changes during its short life. He was unpopular however, largely because monarchical leaders were considered collaborators during French rule and because he had spent his reign absent in France. This referendum was blatantly rigged in favor of a republic.

Until late , multiple coups and changes of government occurred, with some civilians being allowed to give a semblance of civil rule overseen by a military junta. In , the feuding civilian government voluntarily resigned and handed power back to the nation's military, in the hope this would bring stability and unity to the nation. An elected constituent assembly including representatives of all the branches of the military decided to switch the nation's system of government to a Semi-Presidential system.

Military rule initially failed to provide much stability however, as internal conflicts and political inexperience caused various factions of the army to launch coups and counter-coups against one another, making leadership very tumultuous.

Thieu quickly consolidated power much to the dismay of those who hoped for an era of more political openness. Thieu ruled until the final days of the war, resigning on 21 April The South Vietnamese government was regularly accused of holding large quantity of political prisoners, of which the exact number was a source of contention.

Amnesty International , in a report in , gave the estimation of number of South Vietnam's civilian prisoners ranging from 35, as confirmed by Saigon to , or more. Among them, approximately 22,—41, were accounted "communist" political prisoners. Their roles were defined as follows: to protect the sovereignty of the free Vietnamese nation and that of the Republic; to maintain the political and social order and the rule of law by providing internal security; to defend the newly independent Republic of Vietnam from external and internal threats; and ultimately, to help reunify Vietnam.

At the time of signing of the Paris Peace Accords, the South Vietnamese government fielded the fourth largest military force in the world as a result of the American Enhance and Enhance Plus programs with approximately one and one-half million troops in uniform. The lack of sufficient training and dependence on the U. The impact of the oil crisis, a faltering economy, inflation and reduced US aid led to a steady decline in South Vietnamese military expenditure and effectiveness.

One of them was designated as a nationwide civilian broadcast, another was for military service and the other two stations included a French language broadcast station and foreign language station broadcasting in Chinese, English, Khmer and Thai. Radio Vietnam started its operation in under then President Ngo Dinh Diem, and ceased operation on 30 April , with the broadcast of surrender by Duong Van Minh. The radio stations across the former South were later reused by the communist regime to broadcast their state-run radio service.

Covering major cities in South Vietnam, started with a one-hour broadcast per day then increased to six hours in the evening during the s. There were two main channels:. Both channels used an airborne transmission relay system from airplanes flying at high altitudes, called Stratovision. Writing in The Christian Science Monitor in , Dan Sutherland remarked: "Under its new press law, South Vietnam now has one of the freest presses in Southeast Asia, and the daily paper with the biggest circulation here happens to be sharply critical of President Thieu Apart from the mainland, the Republic of Vietnam also administered parts of the Paracels and Spratly Islands.

South Vietnam maintained a capitalist free-market economy with ties to the West. It established an airline named Air Vietnam. The economy was greatly assisted by American aid and the presence of large numbers of Americans in the country between and Electrical production increased fourteen-fold between and while industrial output increase by an average of 6. A study in the journal Diplomatic History found that South Vietnamese economic planners sought to model the South Vietnamese economy on Taiwan and South Korea, which were perceived as successful examples of how to modernize developing economies.

The Vietnamese language was the primary official language and was spoken by the majority of the population. Despite the end of French colonial rule, the French language still maintained a strong presence in South Vietnam where it was used in administration, education especially at the secondary and higher levels , trade and diplomacy. The ruling elite population of South Vietnam was known to speak French as its primary language.

Languages spoken by minority groups included Chinese, Khmer and other languages spoken by Montagnard groups.

Cultural life was strongly influenced by China until French domination in the 18th century. At that time, the traditional culture began to acquire an overlay of Western characteristics. Many families had three generations living under one roof.

The emerging South Vietnamese middle class and youth in the s became increasingly more westernised, and followed American cultural and social trends, especially in music, fashion and social attitudes in major cities like Saigon. The Embassy of the Republic of Vietnam in Washington donated reels of South Vietnamese-produced film to the Library of Congress during the embassy's closure following the Fall of Saigon, which are in the Library to this day.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the former country. For its geographical region, see Southern Vietnam. For the modern country, see Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

For other uses, see Vietnam disambiguation. Former country in southeast Asia. Coat of arms. Buddhism Roman Catholicism Confucianism Taoism.

Tran cong hoan

Tran cong hoan